Custom CNC Milling

Custom CNC Milling

Custom CNC milling machines can be used to make squares/flat faces, notches, chamfers, channels, profiles, keyways and other features that require precisely cut angles. A majority of CNC operations can be done by milling and turning, making this a versatile option for most customers. EKO Industries’ multi-axis CNC milling and turning machines are able to handle a range of instructions to produce end products with a wide variety of industrial applications. Our engineers work closely with you to ensure that the custom CNC machining is accurate to optimize your production.

CNC milling is a technology developed for production and manufacturing industries. Richard Kegg created the first CNC machine named “Cincinnati Milacron Hydrotel” in 1952, and after five years in 1958, this technology was launched commercially.  

What is CNC milling?

Computer numerical control (CNC) milling is a typical machining process used to produce complex parts. This fabrication method gives high precision customized workpiece and cuts various materials like glass, plastic, metals and wood. 

Types of CNC milling machines

Depending on the material type and product manufactured, machines running on CNC technology are categorized into various types like:

Horizontal Milling 

In horizontal milling, a mounted CNC cutting tool with a spindle is oriented horizontally, pressed along the workpiece. This machine is ideal for handling heavier and deeper cuts.

Vertical milling 

In vertical milling, the spindle is oriented vertically, which moves a rotating cutting tool for removing material from a stationary workpiece. Vertical milling machines are easy to program, and they have diverse capabilities like high tool cutting efficiency, stable performance and rigidity. 

Multi-axis milling

In multi-axis milling, the machine usually moves on X, Y and Z-axis and the rotation on the A and B axes. These machines facilitate complex machine operations with high precision.

Milling machine components

The main components of milling machines are:

Column and base 

Column and base are the essential castings that assist all other milling machines’ components.


Knee is a casting which supports the table and saddle components, and all gearing mechanisms conform with it.


Saddle is located between the knee and table, and it serves as a transitional part between them.


Table holds the workpiece during the milling process and situated over the knee.


The spindle is a component which is used to hold and drive the cutting tools and gives a rotary motion to cutters and arbours on the machine.

Over arm

This component is used to tighten the arbour and cutter support, and it consists of cylindrical bars which slide with the help of holes in the column.

Milling head

Milling head comprises the driving motor, spindle and other controlling mechanisms and it is located at the upper side of a vertical mill machine.


It is an overarm in the vertical milling machine which supports the spindle and is adjustable to give various positions in the milling process.

Types of axes

The number of the axis on the Computer Numerical Control milling machine influences the level of detail it can cut, type of work it can do and locations of the workpiece it can shape. The various types of the axis in the milling machines which runs on CNC automation are: 


In 3-axis machines, the cutting tool moves along the XYZ axis and trims the material while keeping the workpiece stagnant. It is ideal for the parts which do not involve much detailing and depth. 3-Axis machining is used in producing mechanical components and is appropriate for drilling holes, milling slots and interactive operation.


In 4-axis machining, the workpiece remains in the same position as in the 3-axis machining, but it has an added rotary movement on X-axis or A Axis. The rotary motion assists the workpiece in cutting on the B axis. 

4-axis machining is advantageous when you need a cut or hole on the side of the workpiece, and it is appropriate for continuous cutting, intermittent cutting and engraving curved surface. 


In a 5-axis machine, the workpiece is manipulated automatically from five sides at a time. 5-axis machines can operate on any two sides of the three rotational axes (A, B, C) in addition to mechanical movements on X, Y and Z-axis. 

5-axis machining is favourable for making complex shapes which are solid and mostly used in the automotive, aerospace, medical and energy industry.

Materials used

Once you decide to use CNC machinery for manufacturing your product, you can choose the perfect material that suits your requirements. The various kind of materials that are suitable for CNC machines are:

  • Metals like aluminum, steel, titanium, copper, brass, zinc, bronze, magnesium, 
  • Plastics like PVC, Nylon and Peek.
  • Other materials like wood, fiberglass, foam. 

CNC milling process

Milling machines that run on CNC technology use computerized programming codes to operate the machine tools used to cut and shape the materials. The stages which are followed by all CNC machining processes include:

  • Designing the parts in the CAD model.
  • Converting the CAD files into the CNC program for machining.
  • Setting up the machine
  • Execute producing the parts.

Final words

The information given above are the basics of the CNC milling. This technology has transformed industrial manufacturing tremendously from the past few decades. The future of this automated machinery  is very bright despite the changes in industrial science because it has an incredible success rate.  

The article is a part of our comprehensive guide on CNC machines.

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    Frequently Asked Questions about Custom CNC Milling

    Our expert engineers can program the CNC software to achieve a range of specific and complicated tasks. Our multi-axis CNC milling and turning equipment can work with materials including metals like aluminum, steel, titanium, copper, brass, zinc, bronze, and magnesium; plastics like PVC, nylon, and peek; other materials like wood, fiberglass, and foam. EKO Industries is capable of handling a wide variety of industrial specifications and materials – reach out to us for more information on our CNC machines and software.

    CNC milling machines use computerized programming software to operate machine tools to cut and shape your desired materials. The stages followed by a CNC milling machine are the same as all other CNC machines, including designing the CAD model software, converting CAD files into the CNC program, setting up the CNC machine, and executing the production. You can find out more about our CNC machining services or read our blog post for in-depth information on the CNC milling process.

    Our multi-axis CNC milling and turning machines use rotary cutters to shape the products as requested. CNC mills are a common CNC equipment type as they can cut through material according to the required depth, angles, and direction specified in the CNC software. Our multi-axis CNC milling machines move on X, Y, and Z-axis with rotation on the A and B axes to facilitate complex machine operations with higher precision. Find out more about CNC milling machines in our blog post.